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Why some songs delight the human brain

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03210-2

A computer model with a musical education helps to reveal the music that many people prefer.

Braess’s paradox and programmable behaviour in microfluidic networks

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1701-6

Microfluidic systems controlled by a single driving pressure are programmed to exhibit complex flow-switching schemes and a fluid analogue of Braess’s paradox by exploiting fluid inertia and network design.

Engineering orthogonal signalling pathways reveals the sparse occupancy of sequence space

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1639-8

Engineered two-component signalling proteins in Escherichia coli have residue specificities different to their parent proteins and are orthogonal to all extant paralogues, demonstrating that sequence space is not densely occupied.

Heterogeneity in old fibroblasts is linked to variability in reprogramming and wound healing

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1658-5

Fibroblasts from old mice are heterogeneous, which affects the ability of these fibroblasts to reprogram into induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro and influences wound healing rate in vivo.

Teamwork by different T-cell types boosts tumour destruction by immunotherapy

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03106-1

Immunotherapy treatment harnesses CD8 T cells of the immune system to kill tumour cells. The finding that CD4 helper T cells contribute to the success of this treatment in mice might offer a way to improve clinical outcomes.

Chimeric peptidomimetic antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1665-6

A class of chimeric synthetic antibiotics that bind to lipopolysaccharide and BamA shows potent activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, with the potential to address life-threatening infections.

Pan-cancer whole-genome analyses of metastatic solid tumours

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1689-y

The mutational landscape of metastatic cancer genomes is analysed in a large-scale, pan-cancer study of metastatic solid tumours that includes whole-genome sequencing of 2,520 tumour–normal tissue pairs.

The landscape of somatic mutation in normal colorectal epithelial cells

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1672-7

Genome sequencing of hundreds of normal colonic crypts from 42 individuals sheds light on mutational processes and driver mutations in normal colorectal epithelial cells.

Evolution of the new head by gradual acquisition of neural crest regulatory circuits

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1691-4

Analysis of gene expression in the neural crest of vertebrate embryos supports the idea that gene regulatory circuits that define the cranial neural crest evolved gradually from a more trunk-like identity.

Morphology of the earliest reconstructable tetrapod <i>Parmastega aelidae</i>

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1636-y

Three-dimensionally preserved fossils of Parmastega aelidae, a newly described tetrapod from the earliest Famennian (Late Devonian) of Russia, provide detailed insights into the morphology and palaeobiology of the earliest tetrapods.

A glucose-sensing neuron pair regulates insulin and glucagon in <i>Drosophila</i>

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1675-4

A pair of glucose-sensing neurons identified in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster regulates secretion of adipokinetic hormone and Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2, suggesting that these neurons have key roles in maintenance of glucose homeostasis.

Huge whole-genome study of human metastatic cancers

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03123-0

A better understanding of the genetic changes that enable cancers to spread is crucial. A comprehensive study of whole-genome sequences from metastatic cancer will help researchers to achieve this goal.

Structural basis of species-selective antagonist binding to the succinate receptor

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1663-8

High-resolution crystal structures of the rat succinate receptor SUCNR1 in an inactive confirmation, and the humanized rat SUCNR1 bound to an antagonist, provide insights into the structure of these receptors and the species selectivity of antagonist binding.

Stabilization of chromatin topology safeguards genome integrity

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1659-4

Super-resolution microscopy demonstrates how changes in the 3D organization of chromatin protect DNA against excessive degradation following damage.

Early tetrapods had an eye on the land

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03107-0

Fossil finds that can provide clues about how aquatic vertebrates evolved into land dwellers are elusive. But the ancient bones of a newly discovered species of tetrapod now provide some crucial missing evidence.

Somatic mutations and clonal dynamics in healthy and cirrhotic human liver

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1670-9

Whole-genome sequencing of liver microdissections from five healthy individuals and nine with cirrhosis demonstrates the effects of liver disease on the genome, including increased rates of mutation, complex structural variation and different mutational signatures.

Metabolic regulation of gene expression by histone lactylation

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1678-1

The lactylation of lysine residues on histones in mammalian cells is stimulated by hypoxia and bacterial challenges, and increased histone lactylation induces genes involved in wound healing.

Gut microbes regulate neurons to help mice forget their fear

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03114-1

Microorganisms in the gut influence fear-related learning. The results of a study that reveals some of the mechanistic underpinnings of this phenomenon promise to boost our understanding of gut–brain communication.

Podcast: Quantum supremacy and ancient mammals

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03227-7

Listen to the latest from the world of science, with Nick Howe and Shamini Bundell.

Structural basis for enzymatic photocatalysis in chlorophyll biosynthesis

Nature - issue - St, 10/23/2019 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 23 October 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1685-2

Crystal structures of cyanobacterial protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases reveal the basis of the photocatalytic activities of this enzyme, through the role of its active site in enabling the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide.

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